Diabetes mellitus is a disorder/disease in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. Diabetes mellitus has become very common now a days too.
Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal. But the blood sugar levels are not high enough to be termed as diabetes. And prediabetes can lead to diabetes if steps are taken to prevent it. Gestational diabetes is basically diabetes during pregnancy. It usually goes away after the end of pregnancy.
In type 2 diabetes, the symptoms can be mild and may take many years to be noticed.
Symptoms of diabetes include:
feeling very thirsty
needing to urinate more often than usual
losing weight unintentionally
With time diabetes can damage blood vessels in the heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves. Diabetic patients have a higher risk of health problems such as heart attack, stroke and kidney failure.
It can cause permanent vision loss by damaging blood vessels in the eyes.
Diabetic people also develop problems with their feet from nerve damage and poor blood flow. In severe case this can cause foot ulcers and may lead to amputation.
Diabetic diet plan
A meal plan is basically a guide for when, what, and how much to eat to get the nutrition one needs while keeping blood sugar levels in ideal range. A good meal plan considers goals, tastes, lifestyle and any ongoing medication.
A good meal plan includes the following-
More of non-starchy vegetables, such as broccoli, spinach, and green beans.
Fewer added sugars and refined grains, such as white bread, rice, and pasta with less than 2 grams of fiber per serving.
Emphasize, whole foods instead of highly processed foods as much as possible.
Carbohydrates present in food are usually responsible for the rise in the blood sugar levels. How speedily carbs raise blood sugar depends on what food item is being consumed & what is being eaten with it. For instance, drinking fruit juice raises blood sugar faster than eating whole fruit. So consuming carbs with foods that consist of protein, fat, or fiber actually slow down the rise in blood sugar levels.
For the diabetic meal plan, amounts for nutrients should be as follows-
Limit fat to 20% – 35%.
Saturated fat to 7% of your daily calories, 10% or less from polyunsaturated fats, and >10% from monounsaturated fats.
Carbohydrates 50% – 60% of your daily calories.
Including 20 – 30 grams of fiber each day is advisable. (20 gm/1000 kcals)
Protein – 15% – 20% of your daily calories.
The plate method is a simple, easiest way to make sure that one includes enough nonstarchy vegetables and lean protein while limiting the amount of higher-carb foods (not eliminating them). This method is helpful in teaching portion control and lets one enjoy meals leaving sugar levels unaffected.
Division of the plate needs to be as follows –
First fill half with nonstarchy vegetables, such as salad, green beans, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, and carrots, etc.
Then fill one quarter with lean protein, such as chicken, turkey, beans, milk & milk-based products (low fat), tofu, or eggs.
Fill one-quarter with carb foods. Foods that contain carbs include grains, starchy vegetables (such as potato and sweet potato, etc.), rice, pasta, and banana, etc. It’s recommended to add them to meals but is a definite or precise amount.
Safest items for opting in resturants
Many diabetic patients imagine if they could ever include food like non-diabetic ones. Whether ordering from outside or even visiting a restaurant, there is a dilemma about what to eat and what not to eat. Well, here are some safest food options that can be opted for without thinking twice and without getting conscious.
Dal (Pulses-based items)
Dals have 20% fewer carbohydrates than grains. This is a huge difference. Consumption of pulse-based food items will not let your blood sugar levels shoot up. Rather, it is also a good source of protein, so it will keep your tummy full for longer.
Tandoori & shallow fry snacks
Choosing healthy snack options can do wonders for our health. These could be kebabs like Hara bhara kabab, seekh kebab, mushroom tikkas/ mushroom chili, vegetable cutlets, and tandoori gobhi. All these are vegetable-based. So no intake of extra oil, or refined food items and will also not allow the body to spike blood sugar levels.
Green leafy vegetable salads
Salads are a good source of fiber. They help in improving metabolism. Fiber as a nutrient helps keeping the sugar levels in control.
Opting for healthy soups like Mushroom soup, Manchow soup, Hot n sour soup, lemon-coriander soup, tomato soup, spinach soup, Tom Kha Pak soup, and quinoa vegetable soup adds nutrition as well as keeps the tummy full. Including them avoids unnecessary munching/cravings or unhealthy items and thus the sugar level remains in control.
South Indian cusine
Apart from rice-based food like idli, dosa, and uttapam. Other interesting & more low-carb options can be opted such as Medu vada (made from Urad dal), Mixed vada sambhar, Dal Vada, pesarattu ( made from green grams), Adai dosa (made from urad dal), and Besan Chila also. This new variation in south Indian cuisine can add wonders to one’s health.
North Indian cusine
Chole is one of the famous items in north Indian cuisine. Chole with vegetables can be included in the diet, very filling & nutritious. Moong Dal Chila is also very healthy. Adhering to these apart from poha, parantha, etc can be non-monotonous and gives health benefits also.
Well, options such as Mexican wraps, Mexican rice or brown rice, quinoa salad, burrito, quesadillas, wheat tacos, veg chipotle, Mexican patty, and Mexican bean patty from the subway. These contain carbs but apart from that a good proportion of protein, veggies, etc. This will subside the hunger, and satisfy the inner self, and thus the glucose level spike will not occur.
Options such as fresh lime water, coconut water, iced tea, jaljeera, ginger ale, green tea, and sol kadhi which is coconut milk. These should be opted as compared to cola, alcohol-based, juices and fruit punch, etc. These are quite the safest to drink as well as enjoyable.
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